Glossary | CryoSave India

Adult stem cells

An adult stem cell is an undifferentiated (not specialized or not performing a specific function) cell found among differentiated (specialized or performing a specific function like the red blood cell carries oxygen) cells in a tissue or organ. Adult stem cell can renew itself and also give rise to some or all specialized cells. They are involved in repair in an adult body. They have applications in treatments and do not raise any ethical concerns about source.


Allogenic refers to genetically different, in case of stem cells the term is used to refer to transplants where stem cells from a donor rather than self are transplanted.


Autologous refers to self, in case of stem cells the term is used to refer to transplants where stem cells from self are transplanted.

Cord Blood (or placental blood)

Cord Blood (also referred to as umbilical cord blood or placental blood) is the extra/ residual blood that remains in the umbilical cord after the cord has been cut at the time of delivery.

Cord Tissue

Cord Tissue refers to the umbilical cord. It does not include the cord blood.


Cryo-preservation involves stabilizing biological material (like stem cells) by cooling to sub-zero temperatures. This almost stops aging of the biological material that is cryo-preserved.

Embryonic stem cells

As name suggests, embryonic stem cells are the cells derived from a 5 day pre-implantation embryo, capable of giving rise to all the different types of cells in body. The use of these cells in treatments raises ethical concern about the source.


Graft-versus-Host Disease is a complication in which the transplanted cells attack the recipient’s body. This complication does not occur in autologous transplants.

Hematopoietic stem cells

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the blood stem cells that can give rise to all different types of blood cells.


Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) refers to the proteins or markers present on the cells; these are the markers that are matched before a transplant to ensure the compatibility of the donor cells with the recipient.

Induced pluripotent stem cells

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are adult cells that are genetically reprogrammed to behave like embryonic stem cells. Although these cells do not have any clinical application yet, they are used in drug testing.

Mesenchymal stem cell

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are the stem cells that can create structural and connective tissue.

Regenerative Medicine

Regenerative medicine deals with the process of replacing or regenerating cells, tissues and organs to restore normal function.

Stem Cells

Stem cells are the cells that develop into different types of cells, tissues and organs during life. A dividing stem cell can either give rise to another stem cell or different types of specialized cells.

Transplant Medicine

Transplant or transplantation medicine deals with transferring a cell, tissue or organ from one body or body part to another.

Umbilical Cord

Umbilical cord is the connection between the mother and developing fetus. It is a tube-like structure that connects the fetus with placenta and facilitates passage of nutrients, respiratory gases and waste. It is clamped and cut at the time of birth.

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